G.184.108.40.206 P-Delta Kg Analysis
In STAAD.Pro, an alternate procedure has been adopted to incorporate the P-Delta effect into the analysis by combining the global stiffness matrix and the global geometric stiffness matrix [K+Kg].
- First, the primary deflections are calculated by linear static analysis based on the provided external loading.
Primary deflections are used to calculate member axial forces and plate center membrane stresses. These forces and stresses are used to calculate geometric stiffness terms. Both the large delta effects and the small delta effects are calculated. These terms are the terms of the Kg matrix which are added to the global stiffness matrix K.
The lateral loading must be present concurrently with the vertical loading for proper consideration of the P-Delta effect. The REPEAT LOAD facility (TR.32.11 Repeat Load Specification) has been created with this requirement in mind. This facility allows the user to combine previously defined primary load cases to create a new primary load case.
This procedure yields reasonably accurate results with small displacement problems. STAAD.Pro allows the user to specify multiple iterations of this P-Delta-KG procedure; however one iteration is almost always sufficient.
The P-Delta analysis is recommended by several design codes such as ACI 318, LRFD, IS456-1978, etc. in lieu of the moment magnification method for the calculation of more realistic forces and moments.
P-Delta effects are calculated for frame members and plate elements only. They are not calculated for solid elements.
The maximum displacement should be reviewed for P-Delta analyses because this analysis type permits buckling. You may need to repeat the analysis with only one to five iterations or as a static case in order to get a pre-collapse solution in order to view the large displacement areas.
Buckling may also cause the analysis to fail with a negative definite matrix failure. In this case, a message is printed and the results of the case are set to zero. (In this case, repeat the analysis using PDELTA 30 ANALYSIS SMALLDELTA instead).