# D1.F.5.6.1 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration

Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. The ACI 318 code specifies two options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated (Section 10.10 & 10.11 ACI-318). One option is to perform an exact analysis which will take into account the influence of axial loads and variable moment of inertia on member stiffness and fixed-end moments, the effect of deflections on moments and forces, and the effect of the duration of loads. Another option is to approximately magnify design moments.

STAAD.Pro uses both these options. To
perform the first type of analysis, use the command
`PDELTA ANALYSIS` instead of
`PERFORM ANALYSIS`. This analysis method will
accommodate the requirements as specified in Section 10.10 of the ACI-318 Code,
except for the effects of the duration of the loads. It is felt that this
effect may be safely ignored because experts believe that the effects of the
duration of loads are negligible in a normal structural configuration. If it is
desired,
STAAD.Pro can also accommodate any
arbitrary moment magnification factor (second option) as an input, in order to
provide some safety due to the effects of the duration of loads.

Although ignoring load duration effects is somewhat of an approximation, it must be realized that the approximate evaluation of slenderness effects is also an approximate method. In this method, moment-magnification is based on empirical formula and assumptions on sidesway.

Considering all this information, it is our belief that a
`PDELTA ANALYSIS`, as performed by
STAAD.Pro , is most appropriate for the
design of concrete members. However, you should note that to take advantage of
this analysis, all combinations of loadings must be provided as repeat load
cases and not as load combinations. This is due to the fact that load
combinations are just algebraic combinations of forces and moments, whereas a
repeat load case consists of one or more primary load case which are revised
during the PDelta analysis based on the deflections. Also note that the you
must provide the proper factored loads (e.g., 1.4 for DL etc.).
STAAD.Pro does *not* factor the
loads automatically.

## Moment Magnification per the 2011 Editions

If the moment magnification method is used in lieu of an exact analysis, columns designed per ACI 318-11 in STAAD.Pro can consider sway using the moment magnification procedure. The second order effects are approximated by magnified moments for slender columns (as determined by clause 10.10.1) in sway and non-sway frames. The moment magnification procedure described in clause 10.10.6 of the code is used for nonsway frame columns and the procedure in clause 10.10.7 is used for sway frame columns.

The parameters
`BDY`,
`BDZ`,
`SKY`,
`SKZ`,
`SLY`,
`SLZ`,
`SQY`,
`SQZ`,
`SWY`, and
`TRN` apply to these calculations.