# D2.A.5 Beam Design

Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these forces, all active beam loadings are prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total number of sections considered is 13 (e.g., 0., .1, .2, .25, .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .75, .8, .9, and 1). All of these sections are scanned to determine the design force envelopes.

## D2.A.5.1 Design for Flexure

Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above mentioned sections. Each of these sections is designed to resist both of these critical sagging and hogging moments. Currently, design of singly reinforced sections only is permitted. If the section dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section, such a message will be permitted in the output. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. In the first pass, effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated. After the preliminary design, reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple layers. The entire flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into account the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provided after the preliminary design. Final provisions of flexural reinforcements are made then. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per AS 3600. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account of other practical consideration), user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 13 equally spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be prepared.

## D2.A.5.2 Design for Shear

Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. Shear design is performed at 13 equally spaced sections (0. to 1.) for the maximum shear forces amongst the active load cases and the associated torsional moments. Shear capacity calculation at different sections without the shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile reinforcement provided by STAAD. Two-legged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on these sections.