# D2.A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration

Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. There are two options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated. One option is to perform an exact analysis which will take into account the influence of axial loads and variable moment of inertia on member stiffness and fixed end moments, the effect of deflections on moment and forces and the effect of the duration of loads. Another option is to approximately magnify design moments.

STAAD.Pro has been written to allow the use of the first option. To perform this type of analysis, use the command `PDELTA ANALYSIS` instead of `PERFORM ANALYSIS`. The `PDELTA ANALYSIS` will accommodate the requirements of the second- order analysis described by AS 3600, except for the effects of the duration of the loads. It is felt that this effect may be safely ignored because experts believe that the effects of the duration of loads are negligible in a normal structural configuration.

Although ignoring load duration effects is somewhat of an approximation, it must be realized that the evaluation of slenderness effects is also by an approximate method. In this method, additional moments are calculated based on empirical formula and assumptions on sidesway.

Considering all of the above information, a P-Delta analysis —as performed by STAAD— may be used for the design of concrete members. However the user must note that to take advantage of this analysis, all the combinations of loading must be provided as primary load cases and not as load combinations. This is due to the fact that load combinations are just algebraic combinations of forces and moments, whereas a primary load case is revised during the P-delta analysis based on the deflections. Also, note that the proper factored loads (like 1.5 for dead load etc.) should be provided by the user. STAAD.Pro does *not* factor the loads automatically.