# G.17.4.1.4 Types of Nonlinearity

Both geometric and material nonlinearities are considered in this static nonlinear pushover analysis.

## Geometric Nonlinearity

This is a type of nonlinearity where the structure is still elastic, but the effects of large deflections cause the geometry of the structure to change, so that linear elastic theory breaks down. Typical problems that lie in this category are the elastic instability of structures, such as in the Euler bulking of struts and the large deflection analysis of a beam-column member. In general, it can be said that for geometrical non-linearity, an axially applied compressive force in a member decreases its bending stiffness, but an axially applied tensile force increases its bending stiffness. In addition, the P-Delta effect is also included in this concept.

## Material Nonlinearity

In this type of nonlinearity, the material undergoes plastic deformation. Material nonlinearity can be modeled as discrete hinges at a number of locations along the length of a frame (beam or column) element and a discrete hinge for a brace element as discrete material fibers distributed over the cross-section of the element, or as a series of material points throughout the element.